A few days ago, the medical department of Suzhou University, after 5 years, based on a large sample study, concluded that when waist circumference is not controlled, even if the body mass index is controlled, the risk of hypertension and other diseases will increase significantly. Waist circumference may be a more appropriate indicator of body fat.
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, refers to the special accumulation of fat in the abdomen, which manifests as an increase in waist circumference. These people s fat is mainly deposited under the skin of the abdomen and in the abdominal cavity. The Waist circumference is often larger than the hip circumference, and the limbs are relatively thin. From the appearance, the abdominal obese people are much like apples, so they are also called apple obesity.
In April 2005, the International Diabetes Federation pointed out in the global unified definition of metabolic syndrome that waist circumference is used as a diagnostic standard for central obesity, American male 102cm, female 88cm; European male 94cm, female 80cm; Japanese male 85cm, female 80cm; Chinese And Southeast Asian male 90cm, female 80cm. The Chinese Working Group on Obesity defines criteria that are appropriate for the Chinese population. Men s waist circumference ≥85cm and women s waist circumference ≥80cm are abdominal obesity.
BMI (weight, height squared) and waist circumference are simple anthropometric indicators for assessing obesity. However, people often use BMI to measure the degree of obesity, thus ignoring the increase in waist circumference as an indicator of health risks. Recent studies have found that systemic obesity with BMI as the index and abdominal obesity with waist circumference as the index are not equivalent in the occurrence of various diseases. Among them, the risk of complications for abdominal obesity is greater than Body fat is much larger, which has been confirmed in our research on hypertension and diabetes.
Some people observed a group of white women and found that obese people are 3.7 times more likely to have diabetes than ordinary people, while abdominal obese women are 10.3 times more likely to have diabetes than ordinary women. The follow-up observation of 2,778 subjects by the University of Suda Medical also found that while the BMI of some individuals decreased, their waist circumference may not have decreased significantly, or even increased; while the BMI increased, their waist circumference may also decrease. Therefore, judging whether a person is obese based on weight alone is a misunderstanding. It is easy to classify people with normal BMI but waist circumference higher than the normal range into low-risk groups, but the risk of disease in this part of the population is still high.
BMI and waist circumference reflect different types of fat accumulation, of which BMI mainly reflects body fat content, and waist circumference mainly reflects abdominal visceral fat accumulation. The increase in visceral fat content or the proportion of visceral fat in total fat is an important factor for health hazards. Visceral fat mainly exists in the abdominal cavity, around and inside organs such as the liver, pancreas, stomach, and intestines. When too much visceral fat enters the digestive system, it can cause damage to the liver and other organs, trigger fatty liver, and disrupt metabolism. Causes diseases such as diabetes. Not only that, visceral fat can also make it difficult to eliminate toxins from the body, which can produce a variety of chemicals and cause heart disease. Visceral fat can increase the risk of Cardiovascular disease and cause arterial inflammation. In addition, abdominal fat can also compress the lungs, leading to shortness of breath in obese people. The m ore difficult it is to breathe, the easier it is to cause insufficient oxygen delivery in the bloodstream, which can lead to general weakness, impaired immunity, and even high blood pressure. Many studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT technology to Accurately measure the body fat content, which has verified that visceral fat content is a better indicator of various chronic diseases and even death than body fat mass.
The distribution of body fat in our population is different from that in the western population, with abdominal obesity as the main cause. And those who are in the normal range, but whose waist circumference has exceeded the normal threshold, their risk of hypertension, diabetes and other diseases is still high, but they are often ignored.
There are many reasons that affect a person s waist circumference, including genetic factors, eating habits, physical activity, sedentary habits, etc. Genetic background is one of the more concerned factors in recent years. Obesity has a certain family aggregation. For example, parents who are fatter and their offspring are fatter. This is due to mutations in multiple sites on different chromosomes that directly or in directly regulates fat metabolism and sugar metabolism, resulting in obesity caused by the accumulation of fat metabolism disorders.
Unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity are also one of the causes of abdominal obesity. In addition, sedentary habits are a health risk factor that has been gradually paid attention in recent years, because prolonged sitting is more likely to lead to increased waist circumference . Our research confirms that sedentary habits can increase the risk of diabetes and hypertension, and regular physical exercise can reduce the risk of these chronic diseases, but the premise is that waist circumference is reduced to normal levels, otherwise the improvement of lifestyle is difficult to significantly reduce Risk of Abdominal Obesity.
Sedentary habits and lack of physical activity are two different concepts. People with sedentary habits may not lack physical activity. For example, due to professional needs, many people have been sitting in a sitting position during work, such as coach drivers, office typists, and so on. Although these people can use the right amount of physical exercise after work, this does not completely compensate for the harm caused by prolonged sitting during the day, especially the gradual accumulation of abdominal fat.
The above-mentioned risk factors leading to an increase in waist circumference are not independent of each other, and they also cooperate or restrict each other. For example, a person on a high-fat diet and lack of exercise has a significantly higher risk of developing obesity than a person on a high-fat diet but sufficient physical activity.